Unfortunately, holidays such as Family Day and Mother’s Day have not been widely recognized.dextra
Unfortunately, holidays such as Family Day and Mother’s Day have not been widely recognized.
The implementation of this thesis has led to a kind of separation of family and school activities: reduced time for extracurricular educational work with students, its content becomes formal. Teachers are automatically removed from work to improve the pedagogical culture of parents. On the other hand, the family, without receiving qualified psychological and pedagogical assistance, is left alone with the problems of upbringing and development of children, experiencing significant complications and not always finding effective and adequate ways to solve them.
The study found that only 16.0 to 51.0% of parents spend free time with their children. And the fact is not that adults lack free time (although this figure is quite high – 46.5%), but in its organization: almost 69.4% of parents prefer watching TV, communicating with other people, making contact with own children to a minimum.
According to the results of the study, it can be stated that the vast majority of families follow the basic family customs, including celebrating baptisms, birthdays, New Year, Christmas, Easter, memorial days, weddings and more. Unfortunately, holidays such as Family Day and Mother’s Day have not been widely recognized. Up to 11% of both adults and children do not even know about their existence. The rest have heard that such holidays exist, but do not consider them really holidays. Quite often the answers are as follows: “I seem to know that we now have such holidays, and when exactly they are celebrated, I can not say”, “We have a holiday almost every day. You won’t remember everything.”
The influence of the family on the child, its formation and development occurs both through extroversion and through introversion (V. Borev, A. Kovalenko). Each of these areas can act in terms of a manipulative or formative program. The nature and direction of the impact on the child’s personality depend on the choice of a particular program, because these programs differ significantly in their functional impact on all elements of the personality animal farm chapter summary structure, causing a certain direction of its development.
Extroverted activities of the individual include such areas as cognition, evaluation, work, communication. Under the manipulative program, parents resort to the following functions:
cognition – reproduction of directed information (suggestion function); assessment – publication of specific axiological settings (regulatory function); work – mobilization for actions necessary for adult family members (managerial function); communication – the formation of egocentric, closed personality, attitude to passive individualism, conformism, incommunicability (disintegration function).
When using the generating program, the following functions predominate:
cognition – the formation of worldview through consistent involvement in the achievements of world culture (educational function); assessment – the formation of the systemxiological orientation of personality (axiological function); work – awakening in the child the need for active and conscious activity (educational function); communication – the formation of communicatively competent personality, the development of attitudes to dialogic communication (communicative-integrating function).
Influence on the child through introversion covers such areas as self-knowledge, self-esteem, self-creation, self-communication.
The manipulative program is aimed at eliminating the personal “censorship barrier” through external curiosity, preparation for uncritical perception of information; blocking introverted activity (destructive-compensatory function).
The formative program provides for the implementation of hedonistic (Greek hedone – pleasure, pleasure) function through the establishment of personality as a value, stimulation of introverted activities; assisting the child in active self-creation as a person.
In its pure form, such programs are inherent in 31.0% (formative) and 36.4% (manipulative) parents. The rest use their mixed type in family upbringing, although in 24.7% of cases the dominant element in this is its manipulative variety.
Each family encounters in the course of its life with problem situations, the solution of which takes place in conditions of conflicting individual needs, motives and interests of its members. Conflict is defined as a clash of oppositely directed goals, interests, positions, opinions, judgments, subjects of interaction, in our case, parents and children of high school age.
Conflict in parent-child relationships reflects the internal contradiction of development, in particular the contradiction between the level of social and intellectual competence of the child, his motives, needs, values and features of the social situation of development – the level of requirements , established system of communication and interaction. Our research revealed that the most common conflicts between parents and high school students occur in the following areas: education, leisure, help with household chores, material costs, friends. At the same time, parents consider problems such as “education”, “help with household chores”, and boys and girls to the most conflict zones include “material costs” and “friends”. Compared to previous years, the number of clashes on the basis of youth subculture, fashion, professional self-determination, and adherence to the regime has significantly decreased. However, this happens under the conditions that the preferences available to young people do not negatively affect (from the point of view of parents) the above areas, in which adults take a strong position.
The study of levels of social development of high school students was based on systems theory, ie its object was the system “personality-society (social environment)”, the integrity of which is ensured by combining regulatory and deterministic parameters of personality with material and information-ideal (spiritual) values. This approach was due to the fact that, as already noted, the individual has innate and acquired properties. The latter include sociogenic needs and social guidelines, as well as character traits, life skills, gender characteristics, worldviews and more. In the formation of these properties is the socialization of the individual in all social institutions, especially in the family.
Experts characterize modern Ukrainian society as a society in transition with its inherent spiritual guidelines, norms and values. Social instability allows the growth of violations of laws, norms and regulations, causes an increase in crime, the number of offenses. All these phenomena do not exist in themselves, they actively, through various channels, affect modern youth, its social development. In addition, we must not forget that the transition of society to a new quality (from a totalitarian system to a democratic, civil society) does not mean the immediate destruction of the old. The essence of the transition period that Ukraine is going through today is that one form of culture disappears and another appears. However, it does not completely deny the previous one, but inherits the most progressive from it and adds its own, new one.
Another important factor that exists today within Ukraine and affects the social development of young generations is the problem of choosing their own and state progress. This choice must be made between two models of life: passive, extreme (when a person outside his consciousness makes a choice and makes a decision) and active, infernal (when a person consciously decides how to live and act). Thus, the social development of modern youth involves the assimilation of a certain system of knowledge, norms and values that would allow them to function as an active member of society. The current state of the value world in Ukraine is too ambiguous and contradictory. It is characterized by a crisis of the old ideology, a rejection of old values; Homogeneous culture, which dominated the territory of the former USSR, is now being replaced by a large number of commensurate cultural and value worlds, and many different value systems. All this to some extent affects the family as a whole and each of its members in particular. In view of this, it was concluded that it is necessary to study the influence of the parental family on the socialization of modern youth of senior school age.
The practice of education as a component of socialization, which provides a purposeful impact on the individual, requires a certain typification of students, i.e. their conditional division into groups in order to determine in relation to each of them the most effective pedagogical position. The basis of this conditional division was based on criteria that reflect a set of certain characteristics. The essence of the studied phenomenon was considered in three aspects: epistemological (assimilation of specific knowledge, social experience, traditions, norms, rules); emotional and personal (attitude to various phenomena of life); practical activities (needs or ability to act in accordance with beliefs).
Of particular importance for the development of the diagnostic apparatus of the study was the theory of L. Kohlberg, which determines three levels of moral development of personality:
1. Pre-moral – a person fulfills the requirements for fear of punishment.
2. Conceptual – compliance with moral norms is ensured by the desire of the individual to belong to a group, society, to meet their requirements in order to preserve themselves (focus on compliance with the rules of formal order).
3. Autonomous – the individual voluntarily chooses models of moral behavior, because he is convinced: we must live in accordance with the moral norms accepted in society. Freedom of moral choice is limited by the conscience and responsibility of the individual.
Another idea of L. Kohlberg is valid. He believes that the level of moral development is determined by the amount of knowledge of certain “moral rules” and the degree of assimilation of relevant rules of conduct, especially the degree of personal acceptance of moral norms as values and motivation for this acceptance …
Given the problem of our study, at the first stage of the work was determined by the attitude of boys and girls to the family, understanding of its essence. The obtained materials made it possible to conclude that their ideas about the family are often (21.2%) limited to the wording such as “these are people who live together and are connected by certain legal ties”, “these are parents and children whom they gave birth to or adopted. “